However, liquid nitrogen and urea may volatilize if applied before November or after February. Look for hay that is bright green in color, soft and pliable, fine stemmed and harvested before the plant reaches full maturity. The forage quality of smooth bromegrass is higher than that of most other cool-season grasses such as orchardgrass or tall fescue; crude protein levels in smooth bromegrass often exceed 12 percent if it is harvested in the boot stage. One of bromegrass’ advantages over other cool-season grasses is that it holds forage quality well as it matures, making it a nutritious hay for horses. However, smooth bromegrass is slow to recover from poorly timed or extreme grazing or mowing. Use Esc key to go back to input search field. The soil of a bromegrass stand should also be tested at least every other year to determine if it has become phosphorus- or potassium-deficient. The sheath is split with the margins overlapping. Interest in the species flagged for a time but re-emerged when smooth bromegrass proved to be more resistant to the Depression-era droughts than many other introduced grasses. Germination Period of Timothy Grass. Smooth bromegrass-alfalfa also makes excellent quality hay. If the stand is grazed in the fall, 30 to 40 pounds of the N should be applied in late August or early September, with the rest used before the soil freezes in November or December. Other legumes have different colours; cicer milkvetch has creamy white flowers, birdsfoot trefoil bright yellow, and … This method requires 10 to 15 pounds of pure live seed per acre. Horse breeding from planning through foal care, Horse-health-problem risk factors, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, Design and maintain a healthy horse operation, Prevention and treatment for problems of the equine foot, How to care for the basic health needs of horses, Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of leg lameness, Proper feeding practices for foals, adult horses, and older horses, All aspects of caring for performance horses, News and issues for equine health professionals, Discussions about the welfare of our equine friends, Two UK Venture Studio Bootcamp Teams Earn Top Awards. Posted by University of Kentucky College of Agriculture, Food and Environment | Dec 17, 2015 | Article, Pasture and Forages. Smooth bromegrass is a common pasture and hay grass in the northern United States and Canada, but not in the southeastern United States, as it does not tolerate extended periods of high humidity. The soil should also be tested to determine if it is too acidic or deficient in potassium (K) and phosphorus (P). Moldy hay, or hay that heated excessively after being baled, will usually be heavy, stuck together and dusty. The lack of smooth bromegrass persistence in such mixtures is related to management decisions that favor alfalfa. It is impossible to always meet all of the criteria; however, some are much more important than others. Close grazing in fall may also cause depletion problems the next spring. Both species have erect seedlings with dull, hairy leaves that display red-purple stripes following the leaf veins. Although smooth bromegrass responds positively to nitrogen rates of up to 275 pounds per acre, applying between 80 and 150 pounds per acre usually produces the highest economic return (Figure 3). The longer the hay is stored and the more yellow it becomes, the more it looses its nutritional value, especially essential minerals for horses. Seed yields typically range from 300 to 1,000 pounds per acre, but a stand older than two years may exhibit production problems. Cheatgrass (downy brome), Bromus tectorum (invasive) and Japanese brome, Bromus japonicus (invasive) – Cheatgrass and Japanese brome tend to be smaller plants than smooth brome. It has a good light green colour, smells sweet and is finely stemmed. Each leaf may be 11 to 17 inches long. It is one of the most useful cool-season grasses throughout its range, valuable for hay, pasture, silage and green chop. It is … Weeds such as musk thistle and johnsongrass may also cause problems, particularly if the stand is to be harvested for seed. A palitable hay that horses like the taste of, this is the hay often used to make cubes & pellets. Neither does Bermudagrass hay or Teff hay. By the time the cover crop is taken, the smooth bromegrass should be established. Also, smooth bromegrass should never be cut below a height of four inches or its regrowth potential will be greatly reduced. This kind of drill has a toothed picker wheel rather than a fluted wheel, which enables it to accommodate chaffy seed. Bromus is a large genus of grasses, classified in its own tribe Bromeae. Figure 3Maximum economic return from the application of nitrogen to smooth bromegrass occurs between 80 and 150 pounds per acre. The Horse’s experts answer your questions during a monthly live audio event. Horses evolved as a grazing animal, which means that they are meant to nibble on small amounts of food over the course of an entire day, and most of this food should be in the form of roughage, or hay. Ideally, the pH of the planting area should be above 5.5, the K level between 220 and 225 pounds per acre, and the P level between 30 and 40 pounds per acre. The above list shows what horsemen often look for in good hay, but a more detailed look at the importance of these criteria is needed. This combination limits the problems of bloat and short grazing seasons that come with alfalfa, and causes better animal performance than a pasture of pure smooth bromegrass. Because of this, a native-grass drill is the best way to drill smooth bromegrass. Designed by Elegant Themes | Powered by WordPress. JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. Enter and space open menus and escape closes them as well. In Missouri, smooth bromegrass may be planted from late February through early April and in September. It's mostly green with some small purple/bluish blossoms mixed in that are alfalfa. The site navigation utilizes arrow, enter, escape, and space bar key commands. Use our feedback form for questions or comments about this publication. Smooth bromegrass left much beyond this period will decrease rapidly in nutritional content. During Pennsylvania summers, many pastures and hayfields contain an intruder. Large perennial stands of Timothy grass growing in fertile lowland fields is a common sight in many states. 1. Information in the Grass Guides found primarily in “Identification and Adaptation” by Ozzie Abaye. When broomsedge gets to … Rotational stocking, particularly in conjunction with a pasture of warm-season grass for summer use, is the best grazing method (Figure 4). The best way to accomplish this is to take a soil sample, send it in to a laboratory and follow their recommendations. Bromegrass takes some specific care … Webcast | Horse Under Stress? This website uses cookies to improve your experience. Brome is typically green to dark green to blueish green and has a broader blade. Tab will move on to the next part of the site rather than go through menu items. Mixtures of smooth bromegrass and alfalfa are normally cut on the basis of alfalfa maturity and quality. This is a low protein and fat hay which has long strands and is high in fiber. © 1993 to document.write(new Date().getFullYear()) Curators of the University of Missouri, all rights reserved, DMCA and other copyright information. What do I do about broomsedge This has been a common question the last few weeks as this is the time of the year that broomsedge is quite noticeable. He is a real solid compact…. Its spindly-natured leaves, small membranous ligule, and winter annual growth habit can usually identify Downy brome. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. Help improve lives, communities and economies throughout the state. Grass has more fiber than alfalfa, which lowers its RFV. Photo by Stephen K. Barnhart, Iowa State Press (1997). It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. What the Horse Owner Needs to Know 5. Want more articles like this? Alfalfa is easy to digest & high in protein, energy, vitamins & minerals. Introduction 2. The stubble can also be collected but is much less nutritious than earlier-season hay. Smooth bromegrass is a common pasture and hay grass in the northern United States and Canada. With mid-summer dry weather, there's always the possibility of parched pastures. Almost all smooth bromegrass seed sold in Missouri is common seed. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. For the best experience on our site, be sure to turn on Javascript in your browser. Orchard, brome and timothy hay have no grain, per se. At the seedling stage brome grass may be confused with wild oats (Avena spp.) Out of these, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. Due to the destruction of shoot apices, grazing or mowing at this time will lead to thinner stands and decreased regrowth. Animals should be concentrated in one pasture for a period of time determined by forage availability. They are commonly known as bromes, brome grasses, cheat grasses or chess grasses.Estimates in the scientific literature of the number of species have ranged from 100 to 400, but plant taxonomists currently recognize around 160–170 species. It's important to cover that risk with the availability of quality, palatable hay at a good price.. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. After broadcasting 15 to 20 pounds of pure live smooth bromegrass seed, the cover crop should be seeded and the bromegrass seed covered. If you continue to use the site, we'll assume you're okay with this. Rotational stocking in conjunction with a pasture of warm-season grass for summer use is recommended. Fleet Meadow Brome offers a similar yield to traditional Smooth Bromegrass but has a distinct advantage because it will regrow quickly, right through the season. Sterile seed-heads may be 38 to 50 cm (15 to 20 in) up the stems when sprouts appear at the time Its rhizomes and tough root network also make it worthwhile for ground cover and erosion control. The best way to prevent these problems is to keep the stand healthy and able to compete, through fertilization and proper management. With flaxen mane and tail and four white socks. Secondly, if you do have seed heads, in brome, timothy, orchard grass, tall fescue, blue grass hay that you might be buying, any of them; look to see if you have what looks like little mouse turds in that hay. Photo by Mike Collins, Iowa State Press. Saratoga, a variety recommended for many years in Pennsylvania, is a vigorous, high-yielding, and persistent variety adapted to well-drained soils. At first glance, it looks like the popular timothy grass, but a close inspection can tell you that it's really foxtail. Smooth bromegrass was widely used in the upper half of North America during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with distinguishable northern and southern varieties. Avoid horse hay that shows any sign of mold or musty smell. Tall fescue is an extremely hardy, well-adapted grass species used for hay and pasture in the central and eastern United States and the Pacific Northwest. Hay is also sold in 1-ton bales, with a single bale per ton. References We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. Look for the W or M shape in the leaf. Smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis) is a cool-season grass introduced into the United States from Hungary in 1884. Brome is closer in appearance to orchard than timothy, in appearance. Although this method takes longer, it has the advantages of providing a quick forage and preventing erosion. Of these, a September planting is the most likely to be successful. Fleet Meadow Brome is more tolerant to grazing with a bunch type growth habit, higher in both yield and forage quality when compared to smooth bromes. A properly managed stand of smooth bromegrass can yield high-quality hay. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. Wheat hay, if harvested right, can fit the bill, just like it does for stockers and other cattle in winter grazing programs. Hay and Hay Quality 3. However, smooth bromegrass recovers poorly from cutting because its tiller apices, or tips, are vulnerable to removal. These cookies do not store any personal information. In addition, older stands may easily become dense and sod-bound, resulting in markedly lower productivity. Drilling, which ensures more consistent coverage, is the preferred method for seeding smooth bromegrass. Fleet Meadow Brome also has excellent palatability and is a super dry weather plant. This leads to lower yields after a first cutting and poor seasonal distribution of yield. However, the smooth bromegrass may not persist as well as other grasses in such mixtures. It will green up again in the fall as the temperature begins to cool down. Roadsides and boundaries around fields of smooth bromegrass should be mowed to prevent infiltration. What Hay Growers Should Know 4. Dan Undersander: First look for seed heads in the hay. Baylor, like Saratoga, is a high-yielding and persistent variety in Pennsylvania. Young blades begin rolled and mature to a flattened leaf with pointed tip and rough edges. Because the seeds contain little stored food, they should be planted 1/4 to 1/2 inch deep. The best quality hay is baled into three-string bales, and over-mature hay is baled as round bales. 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